Prepared by INЕС Ltd. Cyprus, Limassol Arosa Complex, 19 2004
The Contents of this document are proprietary, and no disclosed or reprint of this document is allowed without the prior written permission of INEC Ltd.
Increasing world-wide pollution of the seas caused by oil spills (often deliberately released bilge oil of ships or tanker accidents), harmful chemical substance (diluted acid-waste dumping) and decomposition of biological matter (excessive algae growth) with usually disastrous consequences of the marine environment has led to the need for effective monitoring of coastlines, off-shore waters and inland waterways at all times.
Proposed Sea Pollution Patrol System has three main subsystems:
• Pollution Surveillance Aircraft
• Inspection Boat
• Coastal Analytical Laboratory.
Pollution Surveillance Aircraft
Be-103 Pollution Surveillance aircraft is tasked with:
• Detection and tracking of oil spills, chemical waste dumping and areas of excessive algae growth
• Identification and documentation of the source and extent of pollution
• Transmission of pictorial and position information to Inspection Boat
Additional patrol tasks include:
• Search and rescue,
• Surveillance of fishery activities,
• Patrolling the Exclusive Economic Zone
• Patrolling land border. A Be-103 Pollution Surveillance Aircraft is equipped with:
• Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR)
• Infrared camera
• Video, photo cameras and recording media
• Navigation system
• Global Positioning System
• Digital Downlink to the Inspection Boat
Operated by a crew of three, Be-103 PS aircraft fly patrols with a duration of at least four hours, mostly over the sea. The pilot in command is the mission commander, while co-pilot also acts as an observer. Operator in the cabin handles the surveillance equipment (SLAR, IR camera, TV and photo camera) and communications. The sensors are operated from the main console directly in the cockpit. Another console is situated in the cabin, where observer can analyse the date and operate a variety of sensors.
- Pollution Surveillance Aircraf
- Inspection Boat
- GPS system
- swath of SLAR view
- zone ofIR and TV view
- digital downlink
- suspection in pollution vessel
- oil spill
Patrol mission is divided into three functional phases:
• Acquisition of evidence.
The primary sensor used in the patrol over water is SLAR. Object of the interest is designed by the operator. The SLAR then computes the position (latitude and longitude) and calculated vector from Inspection Boat to the object. Object is also shown on the cockpit monitor and their positions are fed to the aircraft navigation system. Integration with the SLAR allows automatic pointing of the IR, TV and photo camera. Images from IR and TV cameras can be shown on the cockpit monitor SLAR, IR and TV images of the identification event are recorded together with the target's position and the time of detection. Data collected are transmitted from aircraft to the Inspection Boats by digital downlink.
The co-pilot is additionally equipped with gyrostabilised day/night binoculars. He can take pictures of the target with a hand photo camera or a video camera, both of which register position as well as time.
Marine Inspection operates SLAR in fisheries protection role
Oil Pollution Surveillance
During patrol mission, the crew performs continuous surveillance for oil spills using the SLAR and, when necessary, the IR camera. When an oil spill is detected, the slick is mapped with the SLAR and IR camera. The suspect vessel is located with the SLAR. The non-flying pilot feeds target data to the aircraft's navigation system and the pilot flies the aircraft to within the range required for an identification. The altitude during patrol flights depends on the sensor to be used, it can vary between 100m and 1000m, with the aircraft flying at speeds between 200 and 350 km/hour. For visual identification of suspect vessel and to obtain pictorial evidence, the altitude flown can be as low as 20 m. All collected data and images are recorded and annotated with position and time. Information on spills, their images and the suspect vessel position data are transmitted from the PS Aircraft to Inspection Boat by the digital downlink in real time.
An oil pollution is detected by variation in reflected radar signal between oil covered -water and normal sea water
Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR)
The SLAR installation on the aircraft incorporates two easy mounted/demounted antennas on either side of the fuselage, giving horizon-to-horizon coverage.
The SLAR's main applications are:
• Oil pollution detection and mapping
• Surveillance of shipping traffic
• Search and rescue
The radar makes use of the smoothing effect of waves covered oil film and detects the difference in surface reflectivity between oil-covered area and unpolluted, rougher water. A deviation from the normal wave pattern, e.g. caused by a ship appears as a white echo, whereas deviation caused by a sandbank or an oil slick is presented in dark grey or black. When flying at 300 km/hour, the SLAR gives a coverage of 15,000square km in one hour, compared to 1200 square km achievable with the human eye. SLAR can see in darkness and through clouds. The SLAR is detecting a trawler at 60 km distance or an oil spill at 30 km. A real-time display with several display modes and a range of image enhancement features as well as automatic target positioning directly on the screen is available to the operator.
Horizontal antenna beam < 0.6°
width Vertical antenna beam > 20°
width Gain >30dB
Pulse width 0.12-0.6
(isec Peak power 20 kW
Ranges 35 /70km
Infra Red Camera
The IR camera is used to obtain imagery at close range, for example, by flying over the wakes of ships. It is able to detect and map minute differences in surface temperature. IR camera data is presented in real-time on display screen.
Main applications are:
• Inspection of suspected oil discharges
• Monitoring for pollution in ship's wakes
• Surveys of spillage sites.
The IR camera can operate both by day and night. It gives information on the spreading of oil and indicates even the thinnest layers. Usually 90% of an oil spill are concentrated within less than 10% of the visual slick. With the IR information, clean-up operations can be directed for maximum efficiency. The gyro-stabilised IR/TV camera turret has a 360° continuously steerable field of regard in both azimuth and elevation.
System Control and Information Display
A powerful workstation with sensor data pre-processor are used for system control, sensor data processing, display and recording. The system operated in three modes:
• Operational mode: sensor control and data display with start-up test and navigation planning
• Mission report preparation
• Maintenance mode with built-in test and sensor parameters programming.
The display screen is subdivided to present the following information simultaneously:
• Sensor data presentation, alternatively showing SLAR image or IR or live video images as selected
• Navigation map with present position, waypoints and sensor footprint overlays
• System status and control information
Inspection Boat is tasked with:
• Collection of samples oil film on water surface in spill detected by patrol aircraft
• Collection of samples surface water in spill detected by patrol aircraft
• Collection of samples hold water, fuel and contents of tanks at suspected vessel or tanker.
An Inspection Boat is equipped with:
• Navigation system with Electronic Chart Display and Information System
• Global Position System
• Navigation radar
• Receiving station for receiving and analyse data transmitted from the PS aircraft
• Water Samplers:
• Surface Films Sampler
• Hold Water Sampler
• Fuel and product into tanks Sampler
• Computer for the inspection protocol preparation
When the information on pollution and suspected vessel is transmitted abroad the Inspection Boat, Inspection Boat is directed to region of pollution and there water and film samples are collected. After it Inspection Boat is directed to vessel suspected in pollution, according to international rules stop it and collect samples of hold water, fuel and contents of tanks. These samples are used for identification of a source of pollution in Coastal Analytical Laboratory.
Coastal Analytical Laboratory
Coastal Analytical Laboratory is tasked with:
• Identification of the samples, extracted from pollution on the sea surface, and samples of hold water, fuel and contents of tanks, extracted from a vessel, which is suspected of pollution of sea surface
• Preparation of the documents for fines in arbitration
Coastal Analytical Laboratory is equipped with:
• Laboratory, which makes the analysis of concentration of by a weight method for estimation of volume of the pollution
• Laboratory, which makes chromatographic analysis on capillary columns for identification of a source of the pollution
• Information system for pollution data storage and analysis.