Below various possible application areas of SAR "Compact" family members are listed. Basic system and special software allows performing subject-oriented processing for vari-ous customers.

Forestry

  • Forest area calculation.
  • Forest glades and roads structure allocation.
  • Cutting area calculation (see Figure 4).
  • Determination of height of trees basing on radar shadow on forest border.

Emergency situations

  • Detection of various objects, their fragments or secondary traces for search-and-rescue services (see Figures 5, 6).
  • Real-time determination of coordinates, area and form of flooding caused by natural and man-caused catastrophes.
  • Determination of ice formation parameters for ship piloting under ice-bound conditions.

Oil-and-gas production

  • Operative detailing of a surface conditions (flooding, relief distortions and so on) in the area of oil- and gas pipelines that are project- ed, built or maintained, see figures 7 and 8) Scheduled and special inspection of pipelines to detect location, configuration and features of brightness and spatial anomalies:
    • disruption of regular structure of the pipeline levee radar image;
    • disruption of homogeneous structure of adjacent territory;
    • arising glittered spots in radar image, that caused by exposed pipe.

Coastguard

  • Operative detection of the above-water objects and determination of their coordinate and type at the time of water area patrolling, (see Figures 9, 10).
  • Military intelligence
  • Operative all-weather round-the-clock detec- tion of the "object of interest" changes at sig-nificant distances from it (see Figure 11).
  • Territorial administration and cartography
  • Operative detailing and mapmaking various communication objects (roads, electric mains, telegraph- and lamp-poles and so on), land tenure objects, natural and artificial reser- voirs, buildings and so on (see Figures 12,13 and 14).
  • Usually such works are fulfilled by means of photography but radar mapping has some advantages in following cases:
    • unlike photography the radar mapping is weather independent and therefore can be used if the mapping area is characterized by large quantity of cloudy days;
    • radar swath width is essentially wider than similar parameter of photo-apparatus. Therefore the radar method needs smaller common flight time for full mapping and, as a result, has lower cost of mapping.

Ecological police

  • Operative detection of sea surface pollution and possible identification of the pollution author (see Figure 1 5).

Oceanology and Fishery

  • Operative detection of spots that have nega- tive radiometric contrast, their coordinates and configuration determination for next cases:
    • hydrological fronts, meanders, whirlwinds and so on (See Figure 1 5);
    • sea surface perturbance that are caused by pelagian fish shoals.

SAR "Compact" family main technical parameters

pm

Main design conception and development prospects of the SAR "Compact" family

All members of "Compact" family are based on the common firmware part, so called Kernel. The Kernel is analog-digital module that includes programmable chirp former, quantizing and pre¬processing systems. Such design conception allows easy adaptation of existing SAR to custom requests. In particular, this "Kernel" conception was realized in follow¬ing our projects:

  • SAR for L (23 cm) and P (1 50 cm) bands;
  • spaceborne SARs "Severyanin-M" and "Luch-M";
  • SAR for pilotless vehicles.

p1

Figure 13. Radar image of area with highway and railway.

p2

Figure 14. Radar image superimposed on topographic map.